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February 22, 2022

Over the millennia, every region on Earth has developed its own successful agricultural ecosystem from flat fields of grain and mountainside rice terraces to coastal fish farms and goat herding. Today, we’re going to break down agricultural systems into three scales: subsistence, small-scale, and industrial agriculture. And we’ll take a look at how a place's history plays a huge role in the system we see today as we follow the story of agriculture in the Philippines.

SOURCES

Philippines
Davila, F. (2018). Human Ecology and Food Systems: Insights from the Philippines. Human Ecology Review, 24(1), 23–50. jstor.org/stable/26506660
Theresa Ventura. (2016). From Small Farms to Progressive Plantations: The Trajectory of Land Reform in the American Colonial Philippines, 1900–1916. Agricultural History, 90(4), 459–483. jstor.org/stable/10.3098/ah.2016.090.4.459
The development and agriculture paradigms transformed: Reflections from the small-scale organic rice fields of the Philippines Robin Broad &

John Cavanagh tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03066150.2012.722082  

Colonial history
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines
asianstudies.org/publications/eaa/archives/the-philippines-an-overview-of-the-colonial-era/

Agribusiness
asianfarmers.org/afaresearches0876dlsj/2009-09-agribusiness.pdf
ifranchise.ph/multinational-companies/

Age of Farmers
philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/images/pdf/pjs_pdf/vol149no2/aging_filipino_rice_farmers_.pdf
cebudailynews.inquirer.net/191635/declining-farmer-population

Land Tenure
cadasta.org/resources/white-papers/strengthening-land-tenure-informal-ettings/
aljazeera.com/news/2008/3/28/asian-rice-crisis-starts-to-bite
aljazeera.com/economy/2019/12/30/growing-pains-southeast-asian-farmers-need-cheaper-agritech

Climate Change
theconversation.com/in-philippines-climate-change-and-conflict-both-conspire-against-rural-women-77729
bbc.com/future/bespoke/follow-the-food/a-staple-food-to-withstand-disaster/
bbc.com/news/science-environment-45828150
irri.org/climate-change-ready-rice

Agroecology
Altieri, M.A., Funes-Monzote, F.R. & Petersen, P. Agroecologically efficient agricultural systems for smallholder farmers: contributions to food sovereignty. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32, 1–13 (2012). doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0065-6 link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13593-011-0065-6#citeas
safsc.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Agroecology-small-farms-and-food-sovereignty.pdf
Agroecology – writ large: link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-5449-2_1#Abs1
Eric Holt-Giménez & Miguel A. Altieri (2013) Agroecology, Food Sovereignty, and the New Green Revolution, Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 37:1, 90-102, DOI: 10.1080/10440046.2012.716388
safsc.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Agroecology-small-farms-and-food-sovereignty.pdf

Water Footprint
foodprint.org/issues/the-water-footprint-of-food/
fao.org/3/ap527e/ap527e.pdf

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