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February 22, 2022

Over the millennia, every region on Earth has developed its own successful agricultural ecosystem from flat fields of grain and mountainside rice terraces to coastal fish farms and goat herding. Today, we’re going to break down agricultural systems into three scales: subsistence, small-scale, and industrial agriculture. And we’ll take a look at how a place's history plays a huge role in the system we see today as we follow the story of agriculture in the Philippines.


Davila, F. (2018). Human Ecology and Food Systems: Insights from the Philippines. Human Ecology Review, 24(1), 23–50.
Theresa Ventura. (2016). From Small Farms to Progressive Plantations: The Trajectory of Land Reform in the American Colonial Philippines, 1900–1916. Agricultural History, 90(4), 459–483.
The development and agriculture paradigms transformed: Reflections from the small-scale organic rice fields of the Philippines Robin Broad &

John Cavanagh  

Colonial history


Age of Farmers

Land Tenure

Climate Change

Altieri, M.A., Funes-Monzote, F.R. & Petersen, P. Agroecologically efficient agricultural systems for smallholder farmers: contributions to food sovereignty. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32, 1–13 (2012).
Agroecology – writ large:
Eric Holt-Giménez & Miguel A. Altieri (2013) Agroecology, Food Sovereignty, and the New Green Revolution, Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 37:1, 90-102, DOI: 10.1080/10440046.2012.716388

Water Footprint

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