This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription. Astronomers think there should be 5 times as much darkmatter as ordinary matter – a shadow universe that makes up most of the mass in the universe. But after decades of trying, no experiments have found any trace of darkmatter – except one.
A massive thanks to the wonderful people at the ARC Centre of Excellence for DarkMatter Physics centredarkmatter.org for showing around and being on camera – Fleur Morrison, A/Prof Phillip Urquijo, Prof Elisabetta Barberio, Madeleine Zurowski and Grace Lawrence. Thanks to Leo Fincher-Johnson and everyone at the Stawell gold mine for having. Massive thanks to Prof. Geraint Lewis – Geraint has been Veritasium’s go-to expert for anything astrophysics and cosmology related. Please check out his website, and buy his books, they’re great – geraintflewis.com Thanks to Prof. Timothy Tait for the help to make sure we got the science right.
▀▀▀ Galaxy cluster simulation from IllustrisTNG – tng-project.org Venn Diagram of DarkMatter from Tim Tait – ve42.co/venn The Bullet Cluster Image from Magellan, Hubble and Chandra telescopes – ve42.co/BC2 Bullet cluster animation from Andrew Robertson / Institute for Computational Cosmology / Durham University – ve42.co/BC3
▀▀▀ Bernabei, R., Belli, P., Cappella, F., Cerulli, R., Dai, C. J., d’Angelo, A., ... & Ye, Z. P. (2008). First results from DAMA/LIBRA and the combined results with DAMA/NaI. The European Physical Journal C, 56(3), 333-355. – ve42.co/DAMA2008
Zwicky, F. (1933). Die rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen nebeln. Helvetica physica acta, 6, 110-127. – ve42.co/Zwicky1
Zwicky, F. (1937). On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae. The Astrophysical Journal, 86, 217. – ve42.co/Zwicky2
Rubin, V. C., & Ford Jr, W. K. (1970). Rotation of the Andromeda nebula from a spectroscopic survey of emission regions. The Astrophysical Journal, 159, 379. – ve42.co/Rubin1
Bosma, A., & Van der Kruit, P. C. (1979). The local mass-to-light ratio in spiral galaxies. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 79, 281-286. – ve42.co/Bosma1
Milgrom, M. (1983). A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis. The Astrophysical Journal, 270, 365-370. – ve42.co/mond1
Sanders, R. H., & McGaugh, S. S. (2002). Modified Newtonian dynamics as an alternative to darkmatter. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 40(1), 263-317. – ve42.co/Mond2
M. Markevitch: A. H. Gonzalez: D. Clowe: A. Vikhlinin: L. David: W. Forman: C. Jones: S. Murray & W. Tucker (2004). "Direct constraints on the darkmatter self-interaction cross-section from the merging galaxy cluster 1E0657-56". Astrophys. J. 606 (2): 819–824. – ve42.co/BC1
Great website about the CMB – background.uchicago.edu/~whu/intermediate/driving2.html
Galli, S., Iocco, F., Bertone, G., & Melchiorri, A. (2009). CMB constraints on darkmatter models with large annihilation cross section. Physical Review D, 80(2), 023505. – ve42.co/CMB1
Antonello, M., Barberio, E., Baroncelli, T., Benziger, J., Bignell, L. J., Bolognino, I., ... & Xu, J. (2019). The SABRE project and the SABRE Proof-of-Principle. The European Physical Journal C, 79(4), 1-8. – ve42.co/SABRE1
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▀▀▀ Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Edited by Trenton Oliver Animation by Ivy Tello and Mike Radjabov Filmed by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Image B-roll supplied by Stawell Gold Mine Music from Epidemic Sound Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang