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December 8, 2021

Today we’re going to talk about the forces that affect a country’s stability. We’ll take a closer look at Costa Rica, Venezuela, Cuba, and Brazil and examine how the cohesiveness of these Latin American countries varies dramatically even though they are in a region with similar characteristics. As you’ll see, a country is like a figure skater, and maintaining peace and stability is much like a pair performing a “death spiral” balancing the forces attempting to pull a country apart and keep it together.

Sources
General
CIA Factbook: cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/docs/one_page_summaries.html
Getis, Bjelland, and Getis. Introduction to Geography, 15 ed. McGraw-Hill Education. 2017. ISBN: 978-1-259-57000-1
Gregory, Derek, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, and Sarah Whatmore, eds. 2009. The Dictionary of Human Geography. 5th ed. Willey-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-4051-3288-6

For a free and open source option for Intro to Human Geography:
humangeography.pressbooks.com/
For a free and open source option for World Regional Geography:
worldgeography.pressbooks.com/front-matter/introduction/

Cracking the AP Human Geography Exam: 2020 edition. The Princeton Review.
Checkerboards and Shatterbelts: The Geopolitics of South America by Philip Kelly

fragilestatesindex.org/analytics/fsi-heat-map/

Costa Rica
cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/costa-rica/#government .
fragilestatesindex.org/country-data/

Venezuela
cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/venezuela/#peopleandsociety
penntoday.upenn.edu/news/venezuelan-crisis-explained
thesolutionsjournal.com/2016/02/22/the-venezuelan-food-sovereignty-experiment/
reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-gasoline-explainer-idUSKBN22V32G
sgp.fas.org/crs/row/IF10715.pdf

Brazil
cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/brazil/
theconversation.com/populism-in-brazil-how-liberalisation-and-austerity-led-to-the-rise-of-lula-and-bolsonaro-146780
theguardian.com/world/2019/may/01/how-brazil-and-south-africa-became-the-worlds-most-populist-countries

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