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March 23, 2022

This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via get 20% off a yearly subscription. To make antivenom, you first need to collect venom from the world’s most deadly snakes.

Huge thanks to the Australian Reptile Park for having over to film – special thanks to Zac Bower for milking all of these snakes for and Caitlin Vine for organizing the shoot. Absolute legends.

Huge thanks to Dr Timothy Jackson from the Australian Venom Research Unit for answering the questions, and fact checking the script. This video would not have been the same without you.

Thanks to Seqirus Australia for providing B-roll footage of the horses and the antivenom production.

Calmette, A. (1896). Le venin des serpents: Physiologie de l'envenimation, traitement des morsures venimeuses par le sérum des animaux vaccinés. Paris: Société d'éditions scientifiques.

Broad, A. J., Sutherland, S. K., & Coulter, A. R. (1979). The lethality in mice of dangerous Australian and other snake venom. Toxicon, 17(6), 661-664. –

WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. (2016). WHO guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins. Geneve, Switzerland. –

Calmette, A. (1896). The treatment of animals poisoned with snake venom by the injection of antivenomous serum. British medical journal, 2(1859), 399. –

Hawgood, B. J. (1999). Doctor Albert Calmette 1863–1933: founder of antivenomous serotherapy and of antituberculous BCG vaccination. Toxicon, 37(9), 1241-1258. –

Pucca, M. B., Cerni, F. A., Janke, R., Bermúdez-Méndez, E., Ledsgaard, L., Barbosa, J. E., & Laustsen, A. H. (2019). History of envenoming therapy and current perspectives. Frontiers in immunology, 1598. –

Kang, T. S., Georgieva, D., Genov, N., Murakami, M. T., Sinha, M., Kumar, R. P., ... & Kini, R. M. (2011). Enzymatic toxins from snake venom: structural characterization and mechanism of catalysis. The FEBS journal, 278(23), 4544-4576. –

Hawgood, B. J. (2007). Albert Calmette (1863–1933) and Camille Guerin (1872–1961): the C and G of BCG vaccine. Journal of medical biography, 15(3), 139-146. –

Vonk, F. J., Admiraal, J. F., Jackson, K., Reshef, R., de Bakker, M. A., Vanderschoot, K., ... & Richardson, M. K. (2008). Evolutionary origin and development of snake fangs. Nature, 454(7204), 630-633. –

Bochner, R. (2016). Paths to the discovery of antivenom serotherapy in France. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 22. –

Young, B. A., Herzog, F., Friedel, P., Rammensee, S., Bausch, A., & van Hemmen, J. L. (2011). Tears of venom: hydrodynamics of reptilian envenomation. Physical review letters, 106(19), 198103. –

Madras Medical Journal, Volume Second, July-December 1870. Page 355

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Inconcision, Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr.,, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Petr Lebedev and Derek Muller
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Filmed by Jason Tran and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek, Iván Tello and Mike Radjabov.
Molecule animation by Reciprocal Space –
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Image
B-roll supplied by Seqirus Australia
Music from Epidemic Sound and Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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